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Antiphospholipid Antibodies – Cause Of Autoimmune Disease?

Antiphospholipid antibodies (or APAs) are a type of protein produced by white blood cells. Antibodies serve to protect against foreign particles such as bacteria and viruses. When the immune system is activated and starts making these antibodies, it can sometimes cause an abnormality that causes it to continue making it even after the infection clears. 

In this way, the antibodies continue to attack healthy cells in the body, causing damage and triggering other autoimmune diseases. You can get more information multiplex ihc service at

For some basic facts

Antiphospholipid Antibodies – Types and Tests

Antiphospholipid antibodies cause blood vessels to constrict and blood to clot (or thrombose). Antiphospholipid bind to phospholipids (fat derivatives, phosphorus-containing lipids from fatty acids, and simple molecules). There are several types of antiphospholipid antibodies that are measured for diagnosis:

Lupus Anticoagulants – antibodies to phospholipids that prevent blood clots. They were measured directly from plasma in Russell's venom (RVVT) and kaolin-cephalic coagulation assays.

Anticardiolipin Antibodies – antibodies that are frequently targeted against cardiolipin and are found in many diseases; measured by a method called ELISA.

Anti-Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 – Predictors of Arterial Thrombosis. This test is used if the first two tests (for lupus anticoagulants or anti-cardiolipin antibodies) are negative.

Sometimes antiprothrombin and antimitochondrial antibodies are also measured.